Tuesday, August 25, 2020

The Rule of Law free essay sample

‘Our parliamentary majority rules system depends on the standard of law. One of the twin standards whereupon the standard of law depends is the incomparability of Parliament in its authoritative limit. The other standard is that the courts are the last judges with regards to the translation and use of the law. As both Parliament and the courts get their power from the standard of law so both are dependent upon it and can not act in a way which includes its repudiation.’ (Lord Woolf, 1995) Explain and talk about. 1. The conventional British Constitution expected: Parliament would ensure opportunity and consider the standard of law in its authoritative limit. It would be in this manner, act naturally controlling. The courts through their responsibility to the standard of law would declare the significance of opportunity against the activity of official force and the creation of enactment. 2. Parliamentary majority rules system depends on the standard of law. [Needs expansion] Parliamentary majority rules system = the administration is casted a ballot into power by the individuals so as to speak to the interests of the individuals. 3. The standard of law can possibly exist if Parliament remembers it and clings to its standards in its administrative limit. There is a contention between the two central protected standards; the sway of Parliament and the standard of law. On the off chance that the contention isn't settled, a protected emergency will emerge. (Bogdanor) In the UK, Parliament has no administrative prevalent. The pith of parliamentary sway has been communicated by Bogdanor as â€Å"what the Queen in Parliament orders is law†. Thus, Dicey has expressed, â€Å"it is a central principle†¦ that Parliament can do everything except for make a lady a man, and a man a woman.† ïÆ' Parliament in its authoritative limit can decide to disregard the standard of law. The issue is along these lines, regardless of whether Parliament can administer in a way, which encroaches the standard of law. NB: This issue possibly emerges on the off chance that one receives a ‘thick’ meaning of the standard of law (as Bingham does), as parliamentary matchless quality is reliable with a ‘thin’ meaning of the standard of law. Bingham proposes that there ought to be a codification of rules, which no legislature ought to be allowed to abuse withoutâ legal restriction. Be that as it may, he takes note of that to substitute the power of an arranged and dug in Constitution for the sway of Parliament is a significant sacred change, which must be made by the British open. In addition, the way that the guideline of the standard of law is unwritten permits judges to lead on what the term implies if and when the inquiry emerges for choice. This would imply that the definition isn't manufactured in theoretical however concerning specific cases, gi ving it more accuracy. Besides, the way that it is unwritten permits the idea to develop after some time in light of new perspectives and circumstances. It is obvious Dicey’s comprehension of the standard of law varies profoundly from the cutting edge understanding. 4. The standard of law can possibly work if the courts are the last judges with regards to the understanding and utilization of the law. [Needs expansion] The standard of law concerns the relationship of the administration to the law. 5. As both Parliament and the courts get their position from the standard of law so both are dependent upon it and can not act in a way, which includes its revocation. Parliament gets their position from the standard of law in light of the fact that [†¦] The courts get their power from the standard of law on the grounds that [†¦] Class Questions How does Dicey record for the standard of law? Presently: contrast that account and the thinking of the courts in Entick v Carrington and IRC v Rossminster against Dicey’s understanding. How would they contrast? What is the fundamental issue that the House of Lords was approached to determine in the Corner House case? a. What significance is granted to the standard of law in thinking of the court? b. Do you concur with the Attorney General that open intrigue (for example ‘British lives on British streets’) ought to be an abrogating factor for a situation, for example, this? Rule of Law †Tom Bingham A. Dicey’s Rule of Law No man can is culpable or can legitimately made to endure in body or merchandise aside from a particular break of law set up in the normal lawful way under the watchful eye of the conventional courts of the land. Nobody is exempt from the rules that everyone else follows and everybody is dependent upon a similar law directed in similar courts. The standard of law swarms the British constitution, yet it's anything but a composed terrific affirmation of guideline. B. A current comprehension of the Rule of Law The contrast between Dicey’s comprehension of the Rule of Law and an advanced comprehension of the Rule of Law is clear through looking at Entick v Carrington and IRC v Rossminster. Entick v Carrington (1765) Case Facts: The King’s delivery people had a warrant from the Secretary of State (a) to capture the offended party, Entick, who was claimed to be the authort of rebellious compositions and (b) to hold onto his books and papers. They broke into his home and removed his papers. Entick sued the officials for trespass to his home and products. The respondents tried to legitimize the lawfulness of the warrant, nonetheless, they couldn't locate a lawful position supporting their case and accordingly, depended upon: (a) the way that such warrants had been given often before and executed without challenge, and (b) the intensity of seizure was fundamental to government. Guideline: An open official must show express lawful expert for any obstruction with individual or property of the resident. Method of reasoning: Master Camden: â€Å"If it is law it will be found in our books. On the off chance that it isn't to be found there, it isn't law.† The way that this type of trespass was a typical practice by the officials can't cover the assortment of open law that has been authorized by Parliament, noted in the books and settled by the courts. Be that as it may, in IRC v Rossminster Ltd (1980) the guideline in Entick v Carrington was restricted. Case Facts: The Taxes Management Act 1970 approved officials of the Board of Inland Revenue, acting under a court order, to enter premises and hold onto anything at all sensibly accepted to be proof of an offense including genuine misrepresentation and duty. In Rossminster, the warrant neglected to indicate what specific offense was suspected. Held: there was nothing in the rule that necessary the specific offense to be expressed in the warrant. Issue I: Was there an infringement of the rule of Entick v Carrington and further, an infringement of Di cey’s comprehension of the standard of law (for example that express legitimate power must be appeared for impedances with singular rights)? Officially, there has not been an infringement of the standard of Entick v Carrington as the rule had been followed. In substance, there has been an infringement as the lawful force presented to the officials of the Board of Inland Revenue are wide/don't need to particularized before the force is utilized against the person. Additionally, the Security Service Act 1996 as a result, made official watchfulness to give warrants, with no legal protect, according to the location or avoidance of â€Å"serious crimes†. Equivalent to a cancelation of Entick v Carrington (Duffy and Hunt). Another impediment of Dicey’s Rule of Law is spoken to by R (on the utilization of Corner House Research and Others) v Director of the Serious Fraud Office (generally known as the Corner House case). A wide edge of attentiveness was given to the Director of the Serious Fraud Office, in spite of the principal appendage of Dicey’s hypothesis for example that adherence to the standard of law = people in power ought not have wide, self-assertive and optional forces. Case Facts: The issue was whether, in stopping the examination, the Director of Serious Fraud Office had unlawfully â€Å"surrendered to a threat†. The danger being referred to was handed-off to the Director by, specifically, the UK Ambassador to Saudi Arabia and the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister’s see was that, except if the examination was dropped, there was an impending danger of a breakdown in UK/Saudi security, knowledge and political co-activity, which was probably going to have genuine ramifications for national security. Standard: National security consistently bests the standard of law. The suggestions are clear: under UK law, an apparently free investigator can never really oppose a danger made by somebody abroad if the UK government affirms that the danger imperils national security. For a situation contacting outside relations and national security the obligation of choice on the benefits is doled out to the chosen arm of government. In any event, when the court guarantees that the Government follows formal necessities and acts normally, the law accords to the official anâ especially wide edge of caution.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Lord Of The Flies Quotes And Significance Essay Example For Students

Master Of The Flies Quotes And Significance Essay Eyes sparkling, mouths open, triumphant, they enjoyed the privilege of control. Section 1, Page 29 This statement originates from the primary part after the gathering of young men had the option to make a fire subsequent to centering daylight with Piggys specs. The fire represents human advancement and great inside the young men, and later in the story the fire being let out represented the wickedness and viciousness that is created on the island. They knew very well why he hadnt: as a result of the hugeness of the blade diving and cutting into living tissue; in light of the intolerable blood Section 1, page 31 This entry happens after Jack sees a piglet stuck in vines and pull out his blade to murder it. He delayed and didn't murder the pig since it got the opportunity to free itself and escape. Jack said he didnt execute the pig since he didnt realize where to cut it and says that he will slaughter the following pig he sees. In any case, here, clearly was reality. This section is huge on the grounds that it shows that Jack was not a savaged but rather a restrained, enlightened individual, who might not murder a pig without regret. He felt himself confronting something ungraspable Part 2, Page 37 This is in section 2, it depicts Ralphs sentiment of the mammoth. This later returns the book when Simon says that the monster is certifiably not a physical structure however the internal fiendishness inside the entirety of the young men. Ralph, to a degree, likewise understood this and fells that the monster is ungraspable genuinely, yet doesn't understand that its the intrinsic malice inside people. I concur with Ralph. Weve got the chance to have controls and obey them. All things considered, were not savages. Were English, and the English are best at everything. So weve got the chance to do the correct things. Jack, Page 42 Another huge entry about the acculturated piece of Jack. Here he even cases that theyre not savages with a nationalistic tone. This is amusing in light of the fact that when they murdered the pig and hung up the Lord of the Flies, they yielded to viciousness, despite the fact that they were Englishmen. Roger accumulated a bunch of stones and started to toss them. However there was a space round Henry, maybe six yards in width, into which he dare not toss. Here, undetectable yet solid, was the untouchable of the old life. Round the hunching down youngster was the assurance of guardians and school and cops and the law. Section 4, Page 62 Here is the starting signs that the gathering of young men are declining in human advancement and transforming into brutality. In any case, now human progress despite everything has more force than brutality and Roger, while tormenting Henry, couldn't give totally into his savage impulses however rather toss shakes around Henry. The decay of ethics begins from little strides into indefensible acts, here Roger is giving the primary indications of the young men surrendering to brutality His psyche was packed with recollections; recollections of the information that had come to them when they surrounded the battling pig, information that they had outmaneuvered a living thing, forced their will upon it, removed its life like a long fulfilling drink. Section 4, Page 70 This statement shows another huge advance into viciousness after Jack executes his first pig. Jack boasts in the execute and is busy with the idea of the primary slaughter. Before in the novel, Jack says that chasing is important to give meat to the gathering. Presently obviously Jack is fixated on chasing due to his crude impulses and has nothing to do with giving sustenance to the gathering. .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d , .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d .postImageUrl , .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d .focused content territory { min-tallness: 80px; position: relative; } .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d , .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d:hover , .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d:visited , .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d:active { border:0!important; } .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d .clearfix:after { content: ; show: table; clear: both; } .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d { show: square; progress: foundation shading 250ms; webkit-change: foundation shading 250ms; width: 100%; darkness: 1; change: mistiness 250ms; webkit-change: obscurity 250ms; foundation shading: #95A5A6; } .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d:active , .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d:hover { murkiness: 1; change: haziness 250ms; webkit-progress: obscurity 250ms; foundation shading: #2C3E50; } .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d .focused content zone { width: 100%; position: relativ e; } .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d .ctaText { fringe base: 0 strong #fff; shading: #2980B9; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: striking; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; content design: underline; } .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d .postTitle { shading: #FFFFFF; text dimension: 16px; textual style weight: 600; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; width: 100%; } .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d .ctaButton { foundation shading: #7F8C8D!important; shading: #2980B9; outskirt: none; outskirt range: 3px; box-shadow: none; text dimension: 14px; text style weight: intense; line-stature: 26px; moz-fringe sweep: 3px; content adjust: focus; content beautification: none; content shadow: none; width: 80px; min-tallness: 80px; foundation: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/modules/intelly-related-posts/resources/pictures/basic arrow.png)no-rehash; position: outright; right: 0; top: 0; } .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d:hover .ctaButton { foundation shading: #34495E!important; } .u0d0c509744362 5813ed845a94ac6f38d .focused content { show: table; stature: 80px; cushioning left: 18px; top: 0; } .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d-content { show: table-cell; edge: 0; cushioning: 0; cushioning right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-adjust: center; width: 100%; } .u0d0c5097443625813ed845a94ac6f38d:after { content: ; show: square; clear: both; } READ: Child Called Nature EssayBut I disclose to you that smoke is a higher priority than the pig, anyway frequently you murder one. Ralph, Page 81 Ralph begins saying this as Jack is tired of not being the pioneer. Here Ralph says as a last contention that the fire is a higher priority than chasing. The importance of this is the way that a fire will flag a salvage transport. This inevitably occurs at long last. What I mean is Maybe its lone us. Simon got awkward in his endeavors to communicate mankinds fundamental ailment. Simon, Chapter 5, page 89 Simon says these words in Chapter 5, where he discusses the brute. While different young men were discussing the mammoth as an exacting brute that stows away in the forested areas, or in the water, as a physical being, Simon says that the monster is just the young men themselves. Simon doesn't completely comprehend this thought until in Chapter 8 where he faces the Lord of the Flies in a visualization. This turns out to be evident that the brute is the insidiousness inside the young men and the viciousness among them. The monster is a tracker we couldnt execute it. Jack, page 126 Jack is discussing the monster here. Jack clearly fears the monster and even set up the Lord of the Flies as a contribution for the brute. Jack doesn't get a handle on reality with regards to the brute and tumbles to viciousness particularly in his demonstration of setting up the Lord of the Flies Im not going to play any more. Not with you. Jack, page 127 This is when Jack leaves the gathering. He does this since all he needs to do is chase and wouldn't like to endure obligations, for example, keeping up the fire. This has importance as it prompts Simons and Piggys demise and it additionally prompts the endeavored murder of Ralph. The half-shut eyes were diminish with the boundless skepticism of grown-up life. They guaranteed Simon that everything was an awful business. Section 8, Page 137 This is the main depiction of the spoiled Lord of the Flies when Simon saw it. This happens directly before Simons vision with the Lord of the Flies where it was by all accounts ready to converse with Simon. This has significance as the Lord of the Flies represented the mammoth, which thusly represented the intrinsic wickedness inside people We cannot prop one fire up. What's more, they dont care. What's more, whats more, I dont here and there. Ralph, Chapter 8, Page 139 This statement is critical as it shows even decrease in Ralph. Ralph and Piggy were the main ones who knew best, and that is to keep the fire consuming in the event that a boat comes so they might be saved. Be that as it may, presently nearly everybody doesn't need a fire and even Ralph at times doesnt care about the fire on the grounds that nobody else does. There isnt anybody to support you. Just me. Furthermore, Im the Beast . . . Extravagant reasoning the Beast was something you could chase and execute! . . . You knew, didnt you? Im part of you? Close, close, close! Im the motivation behind why its no go? Why things are how they are? Ruler of the Flies, conversing with Simon, Chapter 8, Page 142 This statement is in part 8 where Simon has a dream in his experience with the Lord of the Flies. Here the Lord of the Flies gives off an impression of being conversing with Simon. These words said by the Lord of the Flies affirms Simons hypothesis that the mammoth is just the inward detestable inside the young men, not a physical being. This prompts Simon running back to the young men during the blowout trying to disclose reality to different young men. 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Friday, July 31, 2020

Alumni share how SIPA became a launchpad for their careers COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog

Alumni share how SIPA became a launchpad for their careers COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY - SIPA Admissions Blog Im often asked about  where SIPAs alumni land post graduation. The answer is wherever they want! But dont take my word for it. Here are four  videos from SIPA graduates from the classes of 2013  and 2014. The videos are all about two minutes long, so  take  an 8-minute break to hear what our Seeples have to say about how theyre  making an impact across the globe, and how SIPA helped them get there. Alumni Perspective: Jitka Grundmanova 13  Studying at SIPA and living in NY, made me realize that the best way for me to make impact is working in the private sector. Alumni Perspective: Pushkar Sharma MIA 13  Ive wanted to work at the UN since I was twelve years old. Alumni Perspective: Itay Gefen MIA 14  Two years ago, I never would have thought I would work in the start-up scene in New York Alumni Perspective: Adam Scher MPA 13  As a leader youre not just trying to develop more followers, you’re trying to empower the people around you.

Friday, May 22, 2020

John Kennedy Assassination - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2149 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category History Essay Type Essay any type Tags: John F Kennedy Essay Did you like this example? The John F. Kennedy Assassination On November 22, 1963 President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the murder. It is believed that Lee Harvey Oswald was not the only one involved with the crime. There are countless theories on how President Kennedy was murdered. Some of the theories include the FBI, CIA, and the mob being involved. The Warren commission said that they believe that it was solely Lee Harvey Oswald who killed President Kennedy. Most of the evidence shows that Lee Harvey Oswald could not be the only one involved. John F. Kennedy was the fourth United States President to be assassinated. Even today, there remains tremendous debate on who was responsible for the murder of Kennedy. The assassination of President Kennedy has started many different conspiracy theories about who was involved with the murder. President Kennedy wanted to travel to Dallas, Texas to help strengthen his vote for the upcoming election and also to gain more Democratic Party members. Before Kennedy went on the trip there was some concern about a sniper being on top of a building. President Kennedy also made comments before he was killed about his safety in a convertible car. The car President Kennedy was driving in was a 1963 Lincoln Continental open top limo. Sergeant Davis of the Dallas police department was the one who made sure the city was secure whenever any President or foreign leader came to Dallas. The secret service agent who was responsible for the planning of the Kennedy motorcade was Winston Lawson. Lawson told Sergeant Davis not to allow any police officers to follow the presidents car. It was standard procedure for the police to secure the perimeter when any president came to Dallas. Jessy Curry who was the chief of police said that if the cops were allowed to secure the area, then the murder could have been stopped. The cops who would normally secure the area have submachine guns and rifles.(Harrison Edward Livinstone, High Treason 2 The Great Cover-Up:The Assassination of John F. Kennedy (1992) Hardback) The original plan was to go from the Love Field Airport to downtown Dallas and Dealey Plaza. Kennedy was supposed to give a speech at the Dallas Trade Mart. Kennedys car did not have a bullet proof top, because they did not have anything invented at the time. At 12:30 President Kennedys limo went towards the Texas School book depository. Then the car turned right in front of the building and was only 65 feet away. The car was going 13 miles per hour and then slowed down to 9 miles per hour. Once the car passed the building the shots rang out. A man named Abraham Zapruder was right in front of the limo when it was being shot at. Zapruder was filming as the shooting took place. Kennedy and Texas Governor John Connally were both shot. John Connally was riding in the same car as Kennedy and was sitting in the passenger seat in front of the president. Governor John Connally was in critical condition but he survived. There was also another person that was just watching the motorcade that was injured from debris when the bullet hit a curb. (David S. Lifton, Best Evidence:Disguise and Deception in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy) Lee Harvey Oswald had been arrested for the killing a Dallas police officer J.D. Tippit. Lee Harvey Oswald was charged for killing President Kennedy and officer J.D. Tippit. Whenever Oswald was questioned about the shooting of President Kennedy he denied everything. There was a twelve hour interrogation of Lee Harvey Oswald and no recordings or notes were taken. Oswald said that he wasnt involved and that he was just a patsy. Two days after the assassination, Lee Harvey Oswald was shot by Jack Ruby. Oswald was in police custody at the time of the shooting. Jack Ruby posed as a reporter who was trying to ask Oswald a question.(The Assassination of JFK 19 June 2005 www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKindex.htm) The gun that was used was an Italian Manl icher-Carcano rifle. The rifle was found at the Texas School Book Depository on the sixth floor. When the police officers found the gun they recorded everything. The rifle is said to be the same gun that was used in the assassination. There was a bullet on the Connallys stretcher and it was fired from the gun that the police had found. Lee Harvey Oswald purchased the gun under the fake name of Alek James Hiddell. (The Assassination of JFK 19 June 2005 www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKindex.htm) President Kennedy was announced deceased at the emergency room. The surgeons at the hospital said that Kennedy had absolutely no chance for survival. Dr. George Burkley came to the hospital shortly after the president was shot and looked at the head wound and said that it was the cause of death. A priest came to give President Kennedy his last rites. Lyndon B. Johnson who was the vice president was the next person to become president. Lyndon B. Johnson was riding in a car behind Kennedy . Lyndon B. Johnson went through the procedure to become president while he was on Air Force One. (The Assassination of JFK 19 June 2005 www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKindex.htm) Once Air Force One had landed, an autopsy was performed at Bethesda Naval Hospital. The autopsy report said that Kennedy had been shot in the head and in the shoulder. Reports of the autopsy were incorrect and did not match up. It is said that Dr. James J. Humes probably destroyed the autopsy report and notes that were taken during the autopsy. The measurements that Dr. James J. Humes took were inconsistent and not exact. The autopsy reports were not shown to the Warren Commission. The people who handled the autopsy records did not keep track of how many pictures were taken. It is also said that the pathologists were not experienced enough to handle Kennedys body in the first place. Kennedys neck was not looked at to determine how the bullet entered and exited. After the autopsy Kennedys body was em balmed and was put into the white house for the public to see. The body was removed from the white house and buried in Arlington National Cemetery. (David S. Lifton, Best Evidence:Disguise and Deception in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy) There was also no recordings or radio coverage of the assassination. All of the news crews were waiting at the trade Mart for Kennedy and not in Dealey Plaza. There was some news crews riding with the Kennedy motorcade, but they were in the very back. The only recording of the murder was from Abraham Zapruders camera. Many individuals took still pictures of the shooting also. The Zapruder film shows Kennedys head moving forward and then backwards. The Zapruder film was shown on television, but was edited a lot. More recently, in 2003 ABC News drew Dealey Plaza in three dimensional computer models.(David S. Lifton, Best Evidence:Disguise and Deception in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy) The government is doing a good job in preven ting records of the Kennedy assassination from becoming publicly available. In 1964 President Lyndon B. Johnson made the Warren Commission findings to be kept from public viewing. Johnson said that the documents cannot be seen by the public for 75 years, which would be until 2039. Covering up all of the records, leads more people to believe that there is indeed a conspiracy involved with the death of President Kennedy. Congress established the â€Å"President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act of 1992†. Congress made the act so that people could see the records earlier and they also felt that there was not a need to keep the records from public eyes. The act says that any document that has not been lost of destroyed must be given to the public by 2017. Many documents have already been opened, but the majority still remains locked away. All of the original evidence and material cannot be released, because it was lost or destroyed. Some import pieces of evi dence that were neglected are; the Governor of Texass suit being dry cleaned, the limo being cleaned, and Lee Harvey Oswalds Marine service file being lost. (Josiah Thompson, Six Seconds in Dallas (1976 Paperback)) There was a paraffin test conducted on Lee Harvey Oswalds right cheek and hands. The purpose of the test was to tell if Oswald had fired a weapon. The paraffin test came out positive, but the Warren commission said the data was inaccurate. The first people to conduct an investigation were the FBI. The director of the FBI said that he wanted something to convince the public that Lee Harvey Oswald was the only one involved with the assassination. The FBI report took 17 days to complete and was given to the Warren Commission. The FBI assisted the Warren Commission. Both the FBI and the Warren Commission said that there were only three shots fired from the rifle that Lee Harvey Oswald had. The House Select Committee Investigated the FBIs results. The committee con cluded that the FBI did not investigate whether or not President Kennedy was involved in a conspiracy and also that they did not give their data to other law enforcement agencies. James Hosty was an FBI agent who name appeared in Jack Rubys address book. The FBI made another copy of the address book and erased James Hostys name out of it and then gave it to the Warren Commission. Before the assassination took place, Lee Harvey Oswald went to the FBI office so that he could meet with James Hosty. Hosty was not in his office when Oswald had arrived, so Oswald left a note for him. When Oswald was murdered by Ruby, James Hosty destroyed the note by tearing it up and flushing it down the toilet. (Josiah Thompson, Six Seconds in Dallas (1976 Paperback)) When the Warren Commission completed their report many people questioned it and did not believe its findings. Many people have written books and articles disproving what the Warren Commission had said. In 2003 ABC News did a poll to see what the public thought about the John F. Kennedy assassination. The poll said that seventy percent of the people think that there is a plot involved with the murder of Kennedy. Around seventy to ninety percent of the American people did not believe the Warren Commissions findings. Even government officials that worked for the Warren Commission said that they did not completely believe the commissions results themselves. The House Select Committee on Assassinations said that the Warren Commission and the FBI failed to investigate who else could have been with the murder. The committee also said that the main reason for the lack of information and results were due to the Warren Commission not communicating with the CIA. (Gerald Posner, Case Closed (1993 Hardcover, 1st Edition)) The House Select Committee determined that President Kennedy was killed because of a conspiracy. Their results went directly against the Warren Commissions and were the complete opposite. The HSCA said that four shots were fired and Lee Harvey Oswald was not the only one who did the shooting. Lee Harvey Oswald has shot 3 shots and another gunman had fired the other shot from behind the fence on the grassy knoll. The grassy knoll theory has came from acoustic evidence and many different witnesses. In 2001, an article by D.B. Thomas stated that the HSCAs second gunman theory was right. The Assassination Record Review Board said that the autopsy of John F. Kennedy was a tragedy. (David S. Lifton, Best Evidence:Disguise and Deception in the Assassination of John F. Kennedy) The majority of the evidence involved with the John F. Kennedy assassination was mishandled and not dealt with the way it should have been. Since most of the evidence was lost and is locked away, its leads people to further believe in a conspiracy theory. The murder of John F. Kennedy shows that the government has not served its people in a righteous manner. They have lied, covered-up, and twisted things so m uch that it will never be possible to find out who was really involved with the murder. The government has violated the right of its own people. If the government took the time to correctly gather all of the evidence and look at all the aspects of the murder, than there would not be so much mystery surrounding the murder today. The government had violated the Kennedy familys 14th amendment. The 14th amendment and the due process of law were violated, because the Government failed to do a proper investigation of the assassination. The Kennedy family was not provided with a thorough and correct investigation of the murder. The government should have been a lot more accurate and involved with the investigations its agencies performed. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "John Kennedy Assassination" essay for you Create order

Sunday, May 10, 2020

History of Matches - Inventors and Methods

If you need to start a fire do you rub sticks together or break out your handy flint? Probably not. Most people would use a lighter or a match to start a fire. Matches allow for a portable, easy-to-use source of fire. Many chemical reactions generate heat and fire, but matches are a fairly recent invention. Matches are also an invention you probably wouldnt choose to duplicate if civilization ended today or you were stranded on a desert island. The chemicals involved in modern matches are generally safe, but that wasnt always the case: 1669 [Hennig Brand or Brandt, also known as Dr. Teutonicus] Brand was an Hamburg alchemist who discovered phosphorus during his attempts to turn base metals into gold. He allowed a vat of urine to stand until it putrefied. He boiled the resulting liquid down to a paste, which he heated to a high temperature, so that the vapors could be drawn into water and condensed into... gold. Brand didnt get gold, but he did obtain a waxy white substance that glowed in the dark. This was phosphorus, one of the first elements to be isolated other than those which exist free in nature. Evaporating urine produced ammonium sodium hydrogen phosphate (microcosmic salt), which yielded sodium phosphite upon heating. When heated with carbon (charcoal) this decomposed into white phosphorus and sodium pyrophosphate:(NH4)NaHPO4 —†º NaPO3 NH3 H2O8NaPO3 10C —†º 2Na4P2O7 10CO P4Although Brand tried to keep his process a secret, he sold his discovery to a German chemist, Krafft, who exhibited phosphorus throughout Europe. Word leaked out that the substance was made from urine, which was all Kunckel and Boyle needed to work out their own means of purifying phosphorus. 1678 [Johann Kunckel]Knuckel successfully made phosphorus from urine. 1680 [Robert Boyle] Sir Robert  Boyle coated a piece of paper with phosphorus, with a separate splinter of sulfur-coated wood. When the wood was drawn through the paper, it would burst into flame. Phosphorus was difficult to obtain at that time, so the invention was only a curiosity. Boyles method of isolating phosphorus was more efficient than Brands: 4NaPO3 2SiO2 10C —†º 2Na2SiO3 10CO P4 1826/1827 [John Walker, Samuel Jones] Walker serendipitously discovered a friction match made from antimony sulfide, potassium chlorate, gum, and starch, resulting from a dried blob on the end of a stick used to stir a chemical mixture. He didnt patent his discovery, though he did show it to people. Samuel Jones saw the demonstration and started to produce Lucifers, which were matches marketed to the Southern and Western U.S. states. Lucifers reportedly could ignite explosively, sometimes throwing sparks at a considerable distance. They were known to have a strong firework odor. 1830 [Charles Sauria] Sauria reformulated the match using white phosphorus, which eliminated the strong odor. However, the phosphorus was deadly. Many people developed a disorder known as phossy jaw. Children who sucked on matches developed skeletal deformities. Phosphorus factory workers got bones diseases. One pack of matches contained enough phosphorus to kill a person. 1892 [Joshua Pusey] Pusey invented the matchbook, however, he placed the striking surface on the inside of the book so that all 50 matches would ignite at once. The Diamond Match Company later purchased Puseys patent and moved the striking surface to the exterior of the packaging. 1910 [Diamond Match Company] With a worldwide push to ban the use of white phosphorus matches, the Diamond Match Company got a patent for a non-poisonous match which used sesquisulfide of phosphorus. U.S. President Taft requested that Diamond Match give up their patent. 1911 [Diamond Match Company] Diamond yielded their patent on January 28, 1911. Congress passed a law placing a prohibitively high tax on white phosphorus matches. Present Day Butane lighters have largely replaced matches in many part of the world, however matches are still made and used. The Diamond Match Company, for example, makes more than 12 billion matches a year. Approximately 500 billion matches are used annually in the United States. An alternative to chemical matches is fire steel. Fire steel uses a striker and magnesium metal to produce sparks which may be used to start a fire. Sources Crass, M. F., Jr. (1941). A history of the match industry. Part 5. Journal of Chemical Education. 18 (7): 316–319. doi:10.1021/ed018p316Hughes, J. P. W; Baron, R.; Buckland, D. H., Cooke, M. A.; Craig, J. D.; Duffield, D. P.; Grosart, A. W.; Parkes, P. W. J.; Porter, A. (1962). Phosphorus Necrosis of the Jaw: A Present-day Study: With Clinical and Biochemical Studies. Br. J. Ind. Med. 19 (2): 83–99. doi:10.1136/oem.19.2.83Wisniak, Jaime (2005). Matches—The manufacture of fire. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology. 12: 369–380.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Twist and Shout Free Essays

The way companies are now packaging their products, makes me think, their ideas must have come straight from the mind of a second grade twelve year old. A senior with arthritis; the person for whom the drug was bottled, needs to have a pair of pliers, a flat head screwdriver, and plenty of muscle to open a bottle of pain medication. By the way, shouldn’t that be anti-pain medicine? But then why do we call the little candies that relief our cough, cough drops and not, anti-cough drops? Getting back to safety caps on medicine bottles, It is next to impossible to open one of those lids. We will write a custom essay sample on Twist and Shout or any similar topic only for you Order Now One medicine bottle says, follow the arrows to open, press down and turn. This sounds easy enough if you are built like Arnold Schwarzenegger. The problem with easy open bottles is the person in need of the medication is probably built more like Kermit the frog with Typhoid Fever. It’s ridiculous when you need to purchase TNT to blow off the cap of the pain medication container. The â€Å"safety† cap is designed to keep kids from opening the bottle and swallowing the meds. The problem is a child can open them much easier than a senior citizen under the best of conditions. I can see it now. â€Å"Grampa, give me the bottle, I’ll open it for you. † â€Å"But, you are only five†¦ and this cap is attached to the bottle with super glue. † I guarantee you; the five year old will have that top off before you can pronounce the name of the medication. The list of side effects on some of these meds is multitudinous. These bottles site every contraindication known to man, including, the inability to move, or think clearly, which may provoke, one to think; maybe it would be better if I laid down and died. This medication, the label states, may cause dizziness, light headedness, Vertigo, cramps, diarrhea, constipation, headaches, ear aches, Gingivitis, Gout, fainting spells, stomach pains, thoughts of suicide, and even death. For goodness sake, I’m only taking it for a headache, not preparing for cremation. I guess we can’t blame the drug companies for listing everything that can happen to a person if they take their medicine. People today, through all media, are urged to sue for everything. The advent of television advertising has branched out in these last few years allowing lawyers to advertise their services. Television advertising has become a haven for ambulance chasers and their ilk. I heard the story of a man who sued a motor coach company for damages caused when his vehicle crashed. He claimed he was driving down a stretch of road, in his new motor coach, when he decided he’d go back to the kitchen area and brew a pot of coffee. He put the vehicle on cruise control. The coach crashed, and he was injured, the vehicle demolished. He sued the company for not writing in their brochures that you couldn’t leave the driver’s seat while the vehicle was in motion. He won the case and was awarded a sum of money and a new coach. You are advised to think before you buy any product, read the label; However, the print is so small, you need a magnifying glass the size of a manhole cover to read the instructions on the bottle. Some meds have the side effects written on four sheets of paper inside the box in which the medicine came. All of this inane nonsense is due to sue happy people looking to make a quick buck. Some people play the lottery while others sue companies; the odds in winning are about the same. If you do win in court, the attorney takes his share off the top, probably around sixty percent, and you get the rest after court costs and taxes. Don’t give up your day job. Oh, not you, I’m talking to you, the plaintiff, not your lawyer. Mr Attorney, you are doing just fine in the finance department. That ad on TV has really paid off, hasn’t it? Here’s my idea for packaging medicine. Put a paper seal on the medicine bottle with a written three number code (not in succession). Break the seal, dial the number and open the bottle. As for side effects simply write: Take at your own risk, may cause a myriad of diseases and possibly death. Talk to your physician. Don’t sue us, we told you what could happen. As for manufacturers of motor coaches, all they need to write is; â€Å"Hey stupid if you want a cup of coffee stop at a roadside diner. † This is one I love as I recall going to the drug store for my mother. She had, over the years, adopted a poor sleeping habit, and needed a medication to help her sleep. As the pharmacist passed me the bottle of sleeping medication, I read the label that had been attached to the little brown bottle. It read; ‘may cause dizziness, restlessness, insomnia and drowsiness. If it causes insomnia, why would anyone want to use the drug in the first place? And one can only hope it does cause drowsiness, after all, that’s why you bought it in the first place, isn’t it? There are other stumbling blocks to the senior population; with a skull and crossbones emblem emblazoned on the label; a universal sign denoting it is a dangerous material. We should look und er the emblem, there we will find, in small print, ‘for external use only. ’ What makes the manufacturer of a product with enough chemicals to start World War III write ‘for external use only’ on their bottle. Are they afraid someone is going to use it as a mixer at their cocktail party? If it’s ammonia, you won’t be able to get it past your nose in the first place. Speaking of dangerous things. How many of you have swallowed a capful of mouthwash? Did you know it is unhealthy? The label says do not swallow. Why on earth are you gargling with a product, that if you swallow it by mistake it could kill you, or at the very least make you sick? That’s like putting dynamite, on which is written, beware dangerous material, in your back pocket and then backing up to a campfire to warm your backsides. It’s the same thing you know†¦ too close for comfort either way. What makes a citizen a senior? Answer: age. Though some of us don’t want people to know we are getting along in years, the wrinkles belie our vanity. Face lifts make the recipient look like a monster out of a 1950’s horror movie. I am not ashamed I have made it to three quarters of a century. I thank God my eyes are still the same color as they were when I was twenty, only slightly dimmer. The hair on my head is moving south at a quickening pace, but it has only transferred from the top of my head to my ears and nose. I can’t run any more; my walking pace has slowed almost to a crawl, but inside I am still twenty years old. Until I was forty I didn’t know what a doctor was, or what they did for work. After I had reached fifty, I was asked to become an associate member of the American Medical Association’s Who’s Who of most frequent doctor’s visits list. My mind hasn’t grasped the fact my body has aged. It says to me at times; ‘get up†¦ go for a four mile run, come home take a shower, ride a bike for sixty minutes, eat lunch, skip rope and climb a small mountain. My body answers for me; ‘you have got to be kidding me. ’ There are two fellows whose job it is to see that I remain idle; The Ritis Brothers, of which Artha is the outspoken one, and then there is always Mr Meniere. Mr Meniere’s contribution affects my inner ear; my balance. I reel like a drunken pirate with a pine log peg leg†¦ teetering back and forth with a dizzying gait; But I guess old age is the better of the two alternatives; I always say. As long as you are able to get up in the morning and get out of bed; you are still this side of the dirt. I have God to thank for my being able to get up in the morning, for it is by His grace that I live and move, and have my being. Without His help, I would be nothing but dust and dirt, present, but useless to anyone or anything. These are the golden years, and gold does not tarnish; it is always bright and shiny. Our smiles should be the reflection of our souls. As the little girl said to the grumpy old church deacon. â€Å"Are you happy to be a Christian? † He replied, â€Å"yes I am. † â€Å"Then tell your face. † How to cite Twist and Shout, Papers

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

The Legitimacy Of The Armed Struggle Of The Tamil People Essay Example For Students

The Legitimacy Of The Armed Struggle Of The Tamil People Essay Democracy may mean acceding to the rule of the majority,but democracy also means governments by discussion andpersuasion. It is the belief that the minority of today maybecome the majority of tomorrow that ensures the stabilityof a functioning democracy. The practice of democracy inSri Lanka within the confines of a unitary state served toperpetuate the oppressive rule of a permanent Sinhalamajority. It was a permanent Sinhala majority, which through a series oflegislative and administrative acts, ranging fromdisenfranchisement, and standardisation of University admissions,to discriminatory language and employment policies, and statesponsored colonisation of the homelands of the Tamil people,sough to establish its hegemony over people of Tamil Eelam. These legislative and administrative acts were reinforced fromtime to time with physical attacks on the Tamil people with intentto terrorise and intimidate them into submission. It was a courseof conduct which led eventually to rise of Tamil militancy in themid 1970s with, initially, sporadic acts of violence. The militancywas met with wide ranging retaliatory attacks on increasinglylarge sections of the Tamil people with intent, once again tosubjugate them. In the late 1970s large numbers of Tamil youthswere detained without trial and tortured under emergencyregulations and later under the Prevention of Terrorism Actwhich has been described by the International Commission ofJurists as a blot on the statute book of any civilised country. In1980s and thereafter, there were random killings of Tamils bythe state security forces and Tamil hostages were taken by thestate when suspects were not found. We will write a custom essay on The Legitimacy Of The Armed Struggle Of The Tamil People specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rightsreads: Whereas it is essential if man is not compelled as alast resort to rebellion against tyranny andoppression, that human rights should be protectedby the rule of law.The rise of the armed struggle of the Tamil people constituted theTamil rebellion against a continuing Sinhala oppression over aperiod of several decades. The gross consistent and continuingviolations of the human rights of the Tamil people have been welldocumented by innumerable reports of human rightsorganisations as well as of independent observers of the SriLankan scene. Walter Schwarz commented in the Minority Rights GroupReport on Tamils of Sri Lanka, 1983The makings of an embattled freedom movementnow seem assembled: martyrs, prisoners and apitiful mass of refugees. Talk of Biafra which hadsounded misplaced in 1975, seemed less unreal afew years later As this report goes to press inSeptember 1983, the general outlook for humanrights in Sri Lanka is not promising. The presentconflict has transcended the special considerationof minority rights and has reached the point wherethe basic human rights of the Tamil community therights to life and property, freedom of speech andself expression and freedom from arbitrary arresthave in fact and in law been subject to gross andcontinued violations. The two communities aremow polarised and continued repression coupledwith economic stagnation can only producestronger demands from the embattled minority,which unless there is a change in direction by thecentral government, will result in a strongerSinhalese back lash and the possibility of outrightcivil war. David Selbourne remarked in July 1984: The crimes committed by the Sri Lankan stateagainst the Tamil minority against its physicalsecurity, citizenship rights, and politicalrepresentation -are of growing gravity.. Reportafter report by impartial bodies By AmnestyInternational, By the International Commission ofjurists, By parliamentary delegates from the Westby journalists and scholars have set out clearly thescale of growing degeneration of the political andphysical well being of the Tamil minority in SriLanka Their cause represents the very essence ofthe cause of human rights and justice; and to denyit, debases and reduces us all. .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd , .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd .postImageUrl , .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd , .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd:hover , .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd:visited , .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd:active { border:0!important; } .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd:active , .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u78806983e624299db06526246a0f4bfd:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Biology And Human Evolution EssayA Working Group chaired by Goran Backstrand, of the SwedishRed Cross at the Second Consultation on Ethnic Violence,Development and Human Rights, Netherlands, in February 1985concluded:There was a general consensus that within SriLanka today, the Tamils do not have the protectionof the rule of law, that the Sri Lankan governmentpresents itself as a democracy in crisis, and thatneither the government, nor its friends abroad,appreciate the serious inroads on democracy whichhave been made by the legislative, administrative,and military measures which are being taken. Theextreme measures which are currently beingadopted by the government inevita bly provokeextreme reactions from the other side The normallife of the (Tamil) population of the North has beenseriously affected. People either have greatdifficulty or find it completely impossible to continuewith their employment and there is a severeshortage of food and basic necessities Many Tamilsare daily fleeing across the Palk Straits to SouthernIndia. The continuing colonisation of Tamil areaswith Sinhalese settlers is exacerbating thesituation and the country is on the brink of civilwar.Senator A.L.Missen, Chairman, Australian Parliamentary Groupof Amnesty International, expressed his growing concern inMarch 1986:Some 6000 Tamils have been killed altogether inthe last few years These events are notaccidental. It can be seen that they are the result ofa deliberate policy on the part of the Sri Lankangovernment Democracy in Sri Lanka does notexist in any real sense. The democracy of Sri Lankahas been described in the following terms, termswhich are a fair and accurate descri ption: Thereluctance to hold general elections, the muzzling ofthe opposition press, the continued reliance onextraordinary powers unknown to a freedemocracy, arbitrary detention without access tolawyers or relations, torture of detainees on asystematic basis , the intimidation of the judiciary bythe executive, the disenfranchisement of theopposition, an executive President who holdsundated letters of resignation from members of thelegislature, an elected President who publiclydeclares his lack of care for the lives or opinion of asection of his electorate, and the continuedsubjugation of the Tamil people by a permanentSinhala majority, within the confines of an unitaryconstitutional frame, constitute the reality ofdemocracy, Sri Lankan style.The reports speak for themselves and that which emerges is achilling pattern of a forty year genocide attack on the Tamilpeople intended to subjugate them within an unitary SinhalaBuddhist state. Karen Parker of the Non Governmental Human RightsOrganisation, International Educational Development put itsuccinctly at the 42nd Sessions of UN Sub Commission on theProtection of Minorities. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights statesthat all persons, including members of minoritygroups, have the right to the full realisation of theirhuman rights and to an international order in whichtheir rights can be realised. The Sri Lanka situation has shown that for the pastforty years, the Sinhala controlled government hasbeen unwilling and unable to promote and protectthe human rights of the Tamil population, and theTamil population has accordingly lost all confidencein any present or future willingness or ability of theSinhala majority to do so. Are people in thissituation required to settle for less than their fullrights. Can the international community impose on apeople a forced marriage they no longer want andin which they can clearly demonstrate they havebeen Abused? We consider that in the case of SriLanka, 40 years is clearly enough for any group towait for their human rights.The inhabitants of the Northeast of the island of Sri Lankaconstitute a people and are thereby entitled to the right of selfdetermination. Since it has been recognised that the exercise ofthis right is not designed to dominate others but rather to escapedomination by others, the international community, through theGeneral Assembly Resolutions on Friendly Relations AmongStates (Resolution 2625) and on Definition of Aggression (act 7)and 1977 Additional Protocol I to the Geneva convention of1949 (Act 1 C4), declared that as a last resort armed strugglecan be used as a method of exercising the right of selfdetermination. The Sri Lankan governments use of force indenying the Tamils right to self determination is in violation ofArticles 1 (2), 1 (3), 2 (4) and 56 of the United Nations Charter. .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd , .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd .postImageUrl , .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd , .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd:hover , .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd:visited , .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd:active { border:0!important; } .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd:active , .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u31becf01386856392e309dbd4db6f5dd:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Cloning and Stem Cell Research EssayThe Tamil people have been subjected to brutal and crudepersonal psychological and institutional violence by the Sri Lankagovernment and its agencies. The Sri Lanka Government hasbuilt up a massive 70,000 member armed force constitutedexclusively of Sinhalese and allocated immense funds for itssupport. The Tamils have resorted to arms to defend themselvesand the war being waged by the Liberation Tigers is a defensivewar. Unlike the measures adopted by the Sri Lankangovernment, this struggle is not aimed at domination; instead itserves to protect the sovereign identity of the Tamil people. The armed struggle of the Tamil people is both just and lawfulbecause the rule of law for the Tamil people had ceased to exist;because the Government of Sri Lanka had become a racistgovernment; and because the oppressed people of that racistgovernment were compelled to resort to arms to defendthemselves against that oppression. Based on reason and international law and coupled with theabsence of any internal or external machinery to realise the Tamilright to self determination, the Tamils resistance evolved frompeaceful agitation to armed struggle. As Professor Reisman ofthe Yale Law School states, insistence on non violence anddeference to all established in a system with many injusticescan be tantamount to confirmation and reinforcement of theseinjustices. In some circumstances violence may be the lastappeal.. of a group.. for some measure of human dignity. The international communitys recognition of a Peoples right todefend themselves and to use force to secure their legitimatepolitical objectives is reinforced by the contemporary politicaldiscourse. The formation of armed forces by the Ukraine,Moldavia; Georgia and Armenia and the European CommunitysPeace plan for Yugoslavias current crisis are all proof of theabove mentioned proposition. The legitimacy of the armed conflict of the people of Tamil Eelamwas afforded open international recognition when the combatantsin the armed conflict, participated in talks with a speciallyappointed Minister of the government of Sri Lanka at meetingsconvened by the Indian Government at Thimphu in 1985. It wasa legitimacy which was reinforced in February 1987, by theUnited Nations Commission on Human Right when it adopted aresolution on Sri Lanka in which the armed conflict wasdiscussed in terms of humanitarian law. Again, it was a legitimacywhich the Indo Sri Lankan Agreement signed by the PrimeMinister of India and the President of Sri Lanka in July 1987,recognised when it described the Tamil militant movement ascombatants in an armed conflict. Finally, in 1989/90, theLiberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam engaged in direct talks with thegovernment of Sri Lanka and were accorded recognition ascombatants. The statement made on behalf of the joint Front of TamilLiberation Organisations at the Thimphu Talks in 1985 serves tounderline the just and lawful nature of the struggle of the Tamilpeople:We are a liberation movement which wascompelled to resort to the force of arms because allforce of reason had failed to convince thesuccessive Sri Lankan government in the past. Further under conditions of national oppression andthe intensification of state terrorism and genocideagainst our people, the demand for a separate statebecome the only logical expression of theoppressed Tamil people. Our armed struggle is themanifestation of that logical expression.The future of that lawful armed struggle clearly falls to bedetermined in the context of the security of the Tamil people andtheir right to self determination and these are matters forresolution across a negotiating table, not in vacuum.